Table of Contents

Introduction

My journey into Integrated Circuit Reverse Engineering (ICRE) has only just begun but I am completely consumed with passion for this field. Besides the computer/electrical engineering aspect to ICRE, there is a lot of physics and chemistry knowledge that is needed. For a while, the chemistry component scared me, as I had little to no…


A strain of a Crowti ransomware emerged, the variant known as CryptoWall, was spotted by researchers in early 2013. Ransomware by nature is extraordinarily destructive but this one in particular was a bit beyond that. Over the next 2 years, with over 5.25 billion files encrypted and 1 million+ systems infected, this virus has definitely made its mark in the pool of cyber weapons. Below you can find a list of the top ten infected countries:

Source: Dell Secure Works

CryptoWall is distinct in that its campaign ID initially gets sent back to their C2 servers for verification purposes. The motivation behind these ID’s…


As many of you may or may not be aware of, I have a serious obsession with embedded systems security. It wasn’t until about two years ago where I started my journey of incorporating my knowledge in reverse engineering software applications into pulling apart firmware from embedded devices. Additionally, I also started learning hardware security concepts such as side-channel attacks, fault-injections/glitch attacks, bit flipping, and more.

Anyone who has began their careers in embedded security will tell you that the Arduino board is the best device to get started on. They have a pretty intricate IDE, and an abundant amount…


One of my all time favorite subfields of reverse engineering is the dissection of viruses. In this article I will be exploring malware from the infamous APT29 adversarial group. I will extricate an embedded executable from the main loader that has been classified as Coll Cozy Bear. This loader will need its DOS Stub / PE header reconstructed. Let’s get started.

Below are the Indicators of Compromise (IOC) from the dynamic link library (DLL) we are about to open in a disassembler. An IOC is a piece of forensic data such as observed artifacts found on a network or in…


While working on a reverse engineering project, I came across a binary that appeared to be malformed since it couldn’t be disassembled, but when running the executable, it worked. After researching for a bit I was able to discover that parts of the executable were encrypted. What does it mean to encrypt a code segment and why would anyone want to attempt to reverse engineer such a thing?! Well, let’s take a dive into a Windows PE (Portable Executable) file as an example and look into what segments make up a PE program.

Windows uses a paged-based virtual system and…

Ryan Cornateanu

Security Researcher | Reverse Engineer | Embedded Systems

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